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Сергій Білокінь (Київ)

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The clergy

S. Bilokin

There is a huge amount of information on this subject, but owing to numerous gaps statistical processing of the entire available body of evidence would be premature at this juncture. For this reason we will confine our analysis to the Kiev parishes of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC). By extrapolating results of this analysis to the rest of Ukraine a fairly accurate idea can be gained of the general picture. This Church was founded in 1921 by nationally conscious Ukrainians who had previously belonged to the established Russian Orthodox Church. In the 1920’s there also existed other, more or less numerous denominations. [168] Virtually all of them would be stamped over the following decade.

Kiev’s first UAOC parish was organized at the military St. Nicholas’ Cathedral. The first solemn mass was celebrated here on May 22, 1919, the patron saint’s day [169]. The liturgy was recited in Ukrainian by archpriests Vasyl Lypkivskyi (elected mtropolitan shortly afterward), Nestor Sharayivskyi (later archbishop), Petro Tarnavskyi (later bishop), and Deacon Olexander Durdukivskyi. For that occasion the composer Mykola Leontovych had composed music for the Divine Liturgy and personally conducted the choir. Later Father Volodymyr Bilyi served at St. Nicholas’s Cathedral. The authorities amply rewarded them all – in their customary manner. The first of them to die was the composer Leontovych. In the early hours of the morning of January 23, 1921, he was murdered in his father’s house in the village of Markivka, Haysyn District, by an agent of the district Cheka [170]. Metropolitan Lypkivskyi was arrested at least four times. For the first time he was detained in Mykhailivka in the Bohuslav area while he was visiting his parishes, for the second time in December 1925, for the third time on July 10, 1926, and for the fourth and last time in October 1937. On November 27 he was executed. [171] Father Volodymyr Bilyi perished in prison. The cathedral was demolished in 1934.

In 1919 another UAOC community obtained St. Andrew’s Church. Services in Ukrainian began here on All Saints’ Sunday (the priests were the same who had already officiated at St. Nicholas’s Cathedral). In the UAOC Supreme Orthodox Church Council (SOCC) the parish was represented by several laymen including SOCC Secretary Ivan Tarasenko who would be executed on August 28, 1922 together with his 20-year-old daughter Mariya for alleged membership in the so-called Cossack Council. [172] In the fall of 1925 the authorities took St. Andrew’s Church away from the UAOC and gave it to the Reformed Church which professed loyalty to the regime.

The main UAOC center in the 1920’s was Kiev’s 11th-century St. Sophia Cathedral where a third Ukrainian Autocephalous parish was organized in the summer of 1919. The graphic artist Georgy Narbut was the first to join the new community. He was followed by Academician Ahatanhel Krymskyi, secretary of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and other prominent figures. The first Divine Service was celebated on July 12, the holiday of saint apostles Peter and Paul, by seven priests. In the SOCC the parish was represented by Mykhaylo Moroz (arrested in 1923, then on October 10, 1929, executed on September 28, 1938) [173], Vasyl Lypkivskyi, Nestor Sharayivskyi, Hrihoriy Vovkushevskyi (imprisoned in September 1929, lived in Kzyl-Orda from June 3, 1930 [174]), Mykola Pyvovarov, and others.

The First All-Ukrainian Orthodox Church Synod was held in St. Sophia Cathedral on October 14–30, 1921. It was attended by 472 delegates who elected the church hierarchy, reaffirmed the autocephalous status of the UAOC, confirmed liturgy in Ukrainian, approved the church’s canons, and adopted its constitution. [175]The renowned philologist A. Krymskyi took an active part in the proceedings of the Synod. He would remain faithful to the UAOC to the very end. [176] UAOC bishops who received their episcopal orders in St. Sophia Cathedral included Vasyl Lypkivskyi (October 23, 1921), Nestor Sharayivskyi (October 25, 1921), Ivan Teodorovych (October 26, 1921), Olexandr Yareshchenko (October 27, 1921) [177], Yuriy Mikhnovskyi (October 28, 1921) [178], Stepan Orlyk (October 30, 1921), Ivan Pavlovskyi (November 20, 1921) [179], Hryhoriy Storozhenko (November 27, 1921) [180], Mykhaylo Malyarevskyi (December 18, 1921), Mykola Pyvovarov (February 26, 1922), and Kostyantyn Krotevych (March 26, 1922) [181]. The cathedral’s senior priest Petro Tarnavskyi was consecrated as a bishop here in 1923. The Great St. Nicholas Assembly was held in the cathedral on May 25 through 30, 1924. A new UAOC Presidium was elected here by the Great Intercession Assembly on October 25–30, 1926. Another Great St. Nicholas Assembly took place on May 11–13, 1927 [182]. A great stir was caused by the mass for Ivan Franko, served in the cathedral on May 30, 1926, during which Borys Matushevskyi and other members of the Union of Ukrainian Youth [183] scattered leaflets commemorating Symon Petlyura assassinated in Paris earlier that year.

Under Soviet rule, the Orthodox temples of Kiev, first of all the St. Sophia Cathedral, became oases of free life not fettered by the heavy chains of Communist ideology. To the impious state the Church opposed the entire authority of its thousand-year-old tradition, the very spirit of its evangelical faith, and the whole force of its moral principles, and the regime faced no opposition more formidable or consistent. It is no wonder then that the authorities waged such a fierce and bitter war against the clergy. This is how the writer Yuriy Klen described the atmosphere of those days:

The year 1922. The Easter night in Kiev. Oh, what a night it is! What a din, what an illumination! Beams of spotlights are slicing through the dark and picking out patches of light… Like a carnival procession, an antireligious demonstration is moving along the street. Automobiles full of boys and girls. Masks, false beards, buffoons. A man dressed as a priest with a gray beard reaching down to his waist is sprinkling water right and left; vociferations, flares shooting up into the air and bursting with loud bangs. All the streets are so swarming with people that one can hardly push one’s way through. I am watching it all from the St. Sophia Square where the tumult reaches its peak. There’s a woman being carted along, disguised as the Blessed Virgin, and some people dressed as clowns are dancing round her… [184]

The militant atheists who “were nothing and have become everything,” as the Communist Party anthem says, were opposed by the pure souls of the priests and faithful. In the fall of 1932 an Italian tourist Bardi attended a funeral ceremony in the St. Sophia Cathedral. He recalled the scene:

“Opposite, through an open door, we could see an unforgettable picture of a religious service. A priest with a small black beard and grave movements, having donned a faded frock and a patched-up chasuble, upon which silver still glittered here and there, was officiating, and the fragrance of incense was rising from his censer…” [185]

And Yuriy Klen continued:

I squeeze into the cemetery of the St. Sophia Cathedral – and suddenly find myself in a different world. There are quite a few people praying both in the church and outside. Despite the hubbub out on the square and the flares flying up into the sky, silence is reigning here, behind these high walls. The waves of that tumult seem to break against this stronghold of stone and roll back, exhausted. Even not a single flare, by some miracle, does not fall on the crowd of those who have gathered for prayer. It is amazing how those walls can isolate one from chaos. Oh, how wonderful it is to be able to shut myself off once in a while from that world fallen under the sway of devils and clowns to feel God in the quiet solitude of my soul… [186]

The parishoners of St. Sophia Cathedral were the audience which was most often addressed by the undaunted preacher Volodymyr Chekhivskyi. For the first time he was incarcerated on August 17, 1922. It was here that he delivered his impassioned speech in defense of Metropolitan Vasyl Lypkivskyi. He was again arrested in 1929. Imprisoned in the Solovetskii extermination camp, he was executed on November 3, 1937 as part of “celebrations” marking the tenth anniversary of the Communist takeover. [187]

In those years the cathedral became a social center that attracted numerous Ukrainian intellectuals. While to some it was primarily a shrine, others were tempted by the unique opportunity it offered for communication in an informal environment. In 1926 the poet Mykhaylo Dray-Khmara wrote in his diary:

“April 29 – Good Thursday. Went to St. Sophia and met Kosynka and Ivchenko there. The latter brought a thick candle and was crossing himself and making bows – a true autocephalous Christian! While Chekhivskyi was reading his lengthy sermon about the Princes of the Church (his favorite topic), we were standing in a dark corner and speaking about the events of recent days, mostly about Yenukidze [188] and his Ukrainophobic speech.” [189]

The Second UAOC Synod (203 delegates) was held in St. Sophia Cathedral on October 17–30, 1927. Under pressure of the GPU, the Synod relieved Vasyl Lymkivskyi of “the burden of metropolitan service.” The Great St. Nicholas Assembly met on May 29–June 1, 1928, and two extraordinary UAOC synods were held on January 28–29 and December 9–12, 1930.

Metropolitan Vasyl Lypkivskyi lived in the cathedral compound, first in the residential building of the clergy and after his removal from office in October 1927 in the southern gate tower. In October 1929 he was ordered to move out and went to live with his sister on the outskirts of Kiev. In 1934, after he was prohibited from living in Kiev, he settled in Olexandrivska suburb outside the city jurisdiction (now within the city boundaries).

Another member of the St. Sophia clergy was Archpriest Yuriy Krasytskyi, widely known for his artistic delivery of the liturgy (arrested September 7, 1929, sentenced to three years in a “labor” camp [190], perished in Siberia). From May 1924 to 1926 Archpriest Mykola Khomychevskyi was in charge of the St. Sophia parish. (Better known as the translator Borys Ten, he was arrested in 1923 in the case of Bishop Stepan Orlyk and given a suspended six-month sentence; arrested again on August 8, 1929 and sentenced to 10 years in labor camps, was confined in a camp near Vladivostok [191].) After the Second UAOC Synod Father Leonid Karpov took over as the cathedral’s senior priest (arrested July 3, 1929, sentenced to 10 years in concentration camps, perished in a camp near Khabarovsk [192]). Another superior of the St. Sophia Cathedral, Archbishop Kostyantyn Malyushkevych, was arrested by the GPU several times: in 1926, then in 1931 (spent two months in jail), then again in 1932. Finally, on July 19, 1937 he was arrested once again. Two months later he was executed. [193] In 1932 he was briefly succeeded by Archbishop Yuriy Mikhnovskyi. In February through June 1932 this position was held by Mykyta Kokhno [194] (executed in jail), in 1933–34 by Fedot Shpachenk (died in the U.S.A. Nov. 1, 1985), and then by Sava Mandryka. [195] Mother Vira Kokhno recalled:

“In those times a superior of the St. Sophia Cathedral could expect to last [not more than] six months, after which followed arrests, execution or deporation to Siberia”. [196]

We also know about two archdeacons, the brothers Yevmen (arrested on August 8, 1929 [197]) and Ivan Pyvovarchuk. Both perished while imprisoned. Since March 1923 the cathedral deacon was Mykola Chekhivskyi, Volodymyr’s brother (confined in a camp near Ryazan from February 1921 to July 28, 1922, arrested again in June 1927, then in July 1929, convicted in the SVU case, died in a camp in Yakutia) [198]. Two chairmen of the parish council, Pavlo Vovk and Petro Tereshchenko, were imprisoned and never released. Tykhon Bilokin, who was elected parish clerk in 1925, was arrested in 1927, 1933, and 1938.

The congregation of the St. Sophia Cathedral had two excellent choirs: an arts choir and a folk one. The former was directed by the composer Petro Honcharov, and the latter by the brothers Kyrylo (composer) and Petro Stetsenko [199] (died in exile) who were assisted by Sexton (1920–1922), later Archpriest Dmytro Khodzytskyi (arrested in 1929, served a term of forced labor in the construction of the ill-famed Belomor [200] canal, imprisoned again in 1944). In 1933 the authorities dissolved the parish and on February 15, 1934 closed the cathedral turning it into a state museum. [201]This was a heavy blow for the parish, also because it had just paid the last installment of the crippling annual tax of 20,000 rubles. Upon Archbiship Yuriy Mikhnovskyi’s advice the parish transferred to the Church of Assumption of Our Lady (mentioned in The Lay of Igor’s Host as the Church of Our Lady in Pyrohoshcha) [202].

On February 15, 1920, after Denikin’s White forces had been driven out of Kiev, a Ukrainian Autocephalous parish took over St. Elias’s Church at 25 Bezakivska St., near the railroad terminal. Built by St. Michael’s Monastery in 1908, this church was pulled down in 1935. In the period between 1920 and 1923 the congregation’s clergy included priests Tykhon Bilokin, Kostyantyn Butvynenko (arrested in 1920, 1921, 1929 in the SVU case, and on December 4, 1937; executed January 16, 1938 [203]), and Petro Potapenko (jailed in 1935); and Archdeacon Volodymyr Holovan [204]. In 1921, the parish organized four-week theological courses which were banned in the winter of 1923-24.

The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Kiev’s Podol district, which dated back to the beginning of the 17th century, was handed over to the UAOC at about the same time as the St. Elias’s Church. The priests who officiated in it from 1924 to 1928 included Mykola Khomychevskyi (Borys Ten), whom we have already mentioned, Metropolitan Mykola Boretskyi (1924), and Bishop Kostyantyn Malyushkevych (1924). Ivan Dzyubenko (arrested in 1933 and 1935, and for a third time July 11, 1937; sentenced to 10 years of forced labor [205]) served here as member of the Church Council (1924–25), deacon (1925 – February 1926), and precentor (1926–28). The church was torn down in the same year of 1935.

By the end of 1921 there were two more Ukrainian Autocephalous parishes in Kiev – one in the Holy Trinity Church in the Kurenivka district and the other in St. Elizabeth Church on Trukhaniv Island (its priest was Father Petro Mayevskyi who later emigrated). The latter church was first closed (1933) and then demolished.

Father Fedot Khoroshyi (arrested in September 1929, sentenced to 8 years of “correctional labor”; from 1975 until his death on May 18, 1977 Metropolitan, Archbishop of Toronto and the Eastern Diocese of the Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church in Canada [206]) served at St. John’s Church (so-called Iron Church) at Kiev’s Galician Market.

Some time before 1925 Mykola Chekhivskyi went to serve at a church in Svyatoshyno, a suburb of Kiev. On September 24, 1929, while awaiting trial in a Kiev jail, he wrote this about the bitter experiences of his priesthood:

“Adolescents hurl words of abuse after me. What for? Why? Have I done anything wrong to anybody? Why are they persecuting me? And when I walk down a street, they would not let me pass unmolested. Who has taught all those children to say such things to me? […] Is this just because I have been a priest preaching the Gospel of Christ? But have I been trying to deceive anybody doing this? What have I been teaching the people to do? To rob? To kill? To do harm? No, this is not what have been teaching them, I have never called upon anybody to do this. Nor have I been teaching anybody to hate. I have been calling for love, brotherhood and honest work, for struggle against one’s passions, for struggle against the evil and falsehood. I did not tell them not to work for the state, nor did I tell them not to pay money to it. I said to them: ‘Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.’ What wrong did I do to anybody with this?” The superior of a neighboring Slavic Church Father Viktor Velmin was saying to Father Mykola: “They have been saying in our ecclesiastical circles that in Svyatoshyno the Ukrainian and the Slavic communities have been getting along with each other better than anywhere else in Kiev and the merit has been wholly attributed to the two of us…” [207]

Since 1922 the priest of the Ascension Church in Demiyivka, another suburb of Kiev, was Father Dmytro Khodzyktkyi. The local Ukrainian Autocephalous congregation was disbanded in 1933.

In the Solomyanka district of Kiev, the Intercession Church, where Metropolitan Lypkivskyi had served before the Revolution, was taken over by the UAOC not later than April 1927 (the priests were Kharyton Hovyadovskyi [208] and Dmytro Khodzytskyi who later transferred to Demiyivka) and remained under its jurisdiction until 1934.

The Ukrainian parish of the Annunciation Church headed by Father Kostyantyn Butvynenko also existed until 1934.

The UAOC had several more churches in the Kiev area, but their priests have not yet been identified. Without their names it is, of course, impossible to find out what fate befell them.

Expelled by the authorities from the St. Sophia Cathedral, archbishops Yuriy Mikhnovskyi and Volodymyr Samborskyi moved to the Assumption Cathedral in the Podil district (mentioned in The Lay of Igor’s Host) where they celebrated their first mass late in February 1934. Subsequently, they officiated in turn. Another priests who served here was Father Ivan Kordon (arrested in 1929, November 19, 1932 in Korostyshev, and on April 30, 1937; executed September 22, 1937 [209]). Ivan Dzyubenko had served here as precentor in 1926–28. Shortly before the Easter Holiday of 1934 Metropolitan Ivan Pavlovskyi transferred here from Kharkiv, and the church became the Metropolitan Cathedaral. Demyd Burko described the Easter mass celebrated by three bishops and a deacon:

“The small church cannot accomodate all the people. It must have been some time since it last saw such a gathering. The doors are open, and part of the faithful are standing outside; fortunately, the night is not cold although it is still early spring (that year of 1934 Easter fell on April 8, n.[ew] st.[yle]).”

But the witness was stunned by the silence of Kiev, which for a thousand years had used to resound with the majestic peal of bells on Easter nights – and was now frozen in stupefied silence. [210] Shortly afterward this church, too, was earmarked for demolition. In December it was closed, and 16 parishoners and three singers were arrested. The following year it was torn down. The Metropolitan moved to St. Nicholas’s Church. The authorities closed it – Kiev’s last UAOC church – in June 1935 and used the building for a spinning and weaving mill. The ancient wall paintings were scraped off, and the cross and the dome were torn down. [211] The Metropolitan left for Bilhorod where in May 1936 he was arrested. [212] He perished in imprisonment in Kazakhstan.

This is how the Communists fulfilled, ahead of schedule, what they called the “Godless Five-Year Plan” designed for the 1932–37 period. While in the spring of 1934 the active UAOC top hierarchs included Metropolitan Ivan Pavlovskyi, archbishops Kostyantyn Malyushkevych, Yuriy Mikhnovskyi and Volodymyr Samborskyi, and bishops Olexander Chyrvinskyi and Konon Bey [213] (six bishops out of 34; the rest were in jail or had been forced to repudiate the faith and the Church), in 1936 Ukraine’s last four UAOC parishes were dissolved. According to D. Burko, on the 1938 Easter holiday Poltava’s last active church was the “independent” St. Macarius’ Church (one of two that still functioned in the entire Poltava Region; the other one was in Romny), where a bishop of Slavic orientation, Afanasiy Lebedyntsev, was to celebrate a mass with four of his priests and another two who professed allegiance to the UAOC. They were “all that were left in Poltava and the outskirts,” Burko remembered. In the morning, before the service they were all arrested. [214]

Chronologically, the last trace left by the UAOC in Kiev is the residential building at 62, Pochaynynska Street, Apt. 14 where Archbishop Yosyf Oksiyuk lived and worked after his release from detention on the Kolyma River in Siberia, already within living memory. It was here that he expired on April 23, 1991. [215]

As can be seen, search for factual information on this subject has only just begun [216]. We hope that further studies will not fail to bring to light many a vivid detail. But even our brief overview of evidence on the UAOC parishes in Kiev demonstrates that the Bolshevist terror against the clergy amounted to genocide.


168. S. Bilokin, Pravoslavni yeparkhiyi Ukrayiny 1917(1941 rr. Istoryko-heohrafichni doslidzhennya na Ukrayini: 36 naukovykh prats, Kiev, 1992, pp. 100(120.

169. V. Lypkivskyi, Istoriya, p. 16.

170. Tovarystvu im. Mykoly Leontovycha ( 75 rokiv, Kiev, 1996. No pagination.

171. State Archives of the Security Service of Ukraine (SA SSU), No. 65685 FP, Sh. 91, See: S. Bilokin, Smert Mytropolita Lypkivskogo, Vidomosti Yeparkhialnogo upravlinnya UAPTs u Velykiy Brytaniyi, 1992, July, No. 3 (271), pp. 21(24.

172. The exact day of the execution and many details were given by Hrihoriy Karasyukevych (see his "Mytropolyt Vasyl vidviduye smertnykiv," Pravoslavnyi Ukrayinets, No. 152, Detroit, 19778, October(December, p. 5).

173. SA SSU, No. 49806 FP. A plaque commemorating his son-in-law, the writer Hrihoriy Kosynka, has been installed on the house where he lived (Building 2 of the St. Sophia cultural preserve).

174. SA SSU, No. 33153 FP, Sh. 93, 102.

175. See: Diyannya Vseukrayinskogo Pravoslavnogo Tserkovnogo Soboru v m. Kuyevi 14(30 zhovtnya n.s. 1921 r. [2nd ed.], Frankfurt am Main, 1946, 32 pp.; Ibid. [3rd Ed.], Neu-Ulm, 1965, 60 pp.; Nakazy tserkovnym Soboram i tserkovnym radam Ukrayinskoyi Avtokefalnoyi Pravoslavnoyi Tserkvy, Waterbury, 1960, 64 pp. Cf.: Ivan Teodorovych, Blahodatnist yearkhiyi U.A.P.Ts., Regensburg, 1947, 143 pp.

176. D. Burko, Podvyzhnyk vyshchoyi ideyi: Akademik A. Krymskyi v ukrayinskomu tserkovnomu vidrodzhenni, Ridna Tserkva, No. 87, Neu-Ulm, 1971, July-September, pp. 5(7.

177. Arrested Apr. 2, 1926, exiled to Tashkent (SA SSU, No. 36353 FP, Sh. 78, 109). Arrested again, sentenced again and executed in 1936. For further information see: S. Bilokin, Khresnyi shlyakh Arkhyyepiskopa Oleksandra Yareshchenka, Rozbudova Derzhavy, No. 10 (17), pp. 55(63; I. I. Osipova Skvoz ogn mucheniy i vodu slez…, Moscow, 1998, pp. 230, 282.

178. Arrested July 11, 1937. Executed Oct. 16, 1937 (SA SSU, No. 61960 FP, Sh. 37).

179. V. Shatalova, "Day, Bozhe, okripnuty dukhom," Nasha Vira, Kiev, 1993, December, No. 23(24 (56(57), p. 8.

180. Arrested Oct. 15, 1922, May 1923, May 24, 1924, Dec. 4, 1937. Executed Dec. 28, 1937 (CSAPAU, No. 53131 FP, Box 1182, Sh. 5; 56259 FP, Box 1331, Vol. 2, Sh. 82(89).

181. R. Tsyhan, "Sprava Kostyantyna Krotevycha," Nasha Vira, Kiev, 1995, March, No. 3 (83), p. 6.

182. See: Protokol Velykykh Mykilskykh Zboriv Vseukrayinskoyi Pravoslavnoyi Tserkovnoyi Rady 11(13 travnya 1927 roku, Munich, Nuremberg, 1954.

183. Underground student organization. Its most prominent leaders were convicted in the 1930 case of the "Union for the Liberation of Ukraine."

184. Yu. Klen, Tvory, Vol. 3, Toronto, 1960, pp. 206(207.

185. Ye. Onatskyi, U Vichnomu misti, Vol. II, Toronto, 1981, p. 591. Entry of Nov. 19, 1932.

186. Yu. Klen, Ibid.

187. SA SSU, No. 67098 FP (SVU ["Union for the Liberation of Ukraine" case], Vol. 47a. See also: Fedir Bulbenko, "Stolittya z dnya narodzhennya […] Volodymyra Chekhivskoho," Tserkva i Zhyttya, Chicago, 1976, April(June, No. 2/113, pp. 6(10; July(September, No. 3/114, pp. 6(9.

188. YENUKIDZE, Avel (1877(1937) ( like Stalin, a Georgian by birth, one of his top lieutenants and a close personal friend. Liquidated.

189. Mykhaylo Dray-Khmara. Z literaturno-naukovoyi spadshchyny, New York, etc., 1979, p. 340 (ZNTSh, Vol. CXCVII). M. Dray-Khmara was arrested March 21, 1933, died Jan. 19, 1939 on the Kolyma.The prose writer H. Kosynka was arrested Nov. 4 and executed Dec. 1, 1934. M. Ivchenko was arrested Sept. 15, 1929, died in 1939.

190. CSAPAU, No. 61931 FP, Box 1636, pp. 3, 6, 92. Actually abandoned the UAOC in Sept. 1928 and was struck off the list of the "politically suspect" May 5 (?), 1929. Later served in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Monastery. Metropolitan Vasyl Lypkivskyi noted that as a result of the SVU case "the finest priests of Kiev were exiled: [Yuriy] Krasytskyi, [Leonid] Karpov, [Dmytro] Khodzytskyi, [Mykola] Khomychevskyi, Archpr.[iest Ivan] Pyvovarchuk, who knew nothing about the SVU or any politics, and many others, and many were even shot." (Vasyl Lypkivskyi, Istoriya, p. 169).

191. After release he translated Homer's Iliad and Odyssey into Ukrainian.

192. CSAPAU, No. 62952 FP, Bx 1713, Sh. 2, 27-27a, 78.

193. SA SSU, No. 53679 FP, Sh. 16, 294.

194. Vira Kokhno, Mytropolyt Mykola Boretskyi i protoirey o. Mykyta Kokhno, Tserkva y Zhyttya, Chicago, 1976, July(Sept., No. 3 (114), pp. 13(16.

195. CSAPAU, No. 61900 FP, Box 1634, Sh. 51.

196. Vira Kokhno and Valentyn Kokhno, Tretiy Mytropolyt UAPTserkvy Ivan Pavlovskyi, Tserkva y Zhyttya, Chicago, 1973, July(Aug., No. 4 (97), p. 13.

197. CSAPAU, No. 61929 FP, Box 1636, Sh. 2.

198. SA SSU, No. 67098 FP, Sh. 13(14.

199. Cf.: S. Bilokin, "Avtokefalnyi protoiyerey Kyrylo Stetsenko, Nauka i Kultura, Ukrayina: Shchorichnyk, Issue 25, Kiev, 1991, pp. 318(326.

200. Abbreviated from Belomorsko-Baltiyski kanal (Russian for White Sea-Baltic Canal). The project, completed in 1932(1933, relied heavily on slave labor of political prisoners, mainly "kulaks" and peasants who refused to join collective farms ( transl.

201. Cf.: Olexa Povstenko, Katedra Sv. Sofiyi u Kyyevi, New York, UVAN, 1954, p. 177.

202. D. Burko, "Z knyhy buttya Ukrayinskoyi Tserkvy," Ridna Tserkva, No. 38, 1959, April(June, p. 8.

203. CSAPAU, No. 61 900 FP, Box 1634, No. 65 743 FP, Box 1871, Sh. 4, 7.

204. Ibid., Sh. 49.

205. SA SSU, No. 61960 FP, Sh. 31, 303.

206. "Zhyttyepys Arkhyyepyskopa Mykhayila," UPSlovo, No. 7(8, pp. 11(12; "Pamyati Mytropolita Mykhayila," Ridna Tserkva, No. 111(112, 1977, July(Dec., pp. 7(8; Manuil (Lemesevskij), Metropolit., Die Russischen Orthodoxen Bischofe von 1983 bis 1965, Teil IV, Erlangen, 1986, pp. 417(418.

207. SA SSU, No. 67098 FP, Vol. 129, Sh. 9, 27(28, 33(35.

208. Arrested Feb. 22, 1938, executed (CSAPAU, No. 58819 FP, Box 1493, Sh. 75 rev., 76 rev., 79(84).

209. CSAPAU, No. 53 679 FP, Box 1207, Vol. 1, Sh. 90(102; Vol. 2, Sh. 120(146, 216(220 rev.; Vol. 4, Sh. 93(94.

210. D. Burko, "Z knyhy buttya Ukrayinskoyi Tserkvy," Ridna Tserkva, No. 38, April(June 1959, pp. 8(9.

211. "Shcho nam pyshut," Nove Ukrayinske Slovo, Kiev, 1942, Jan. 14, No. 9 (24), p. 4.

212. Vira Kokhno and Val. Kokhno, Tretiy Mytropolyt UAPTserkvy Ivan Pavlovskyi, p. 14. In October 1995 a plaque commemorating Metropolitan Ivan Pavlovskyi was installed on the southern wall of the church (sculptor V. Lutsak, architect Ya. Kovbasa).

213. D. Burko, Z knyhy buttya Ukrayinskoyi Tserkvy, Ridna Tserkva, No. 38, 1959, April(June, p. 7.

214. D. Burko, Z knyhy buttya Ukrayinskoyi Tserkvy, Ridna Tserkva, No. 16, 1955, Easter, p. 8. "Then no organized church jurisdiction existed any more, these priests had been brought together by their common bitter fate and particularly the Faith and the Easter Service," wrote Burko. Unfortunately, no such bishop is listed in the catalog of Metropolitan Manuil. Nor is he mentioned in the register of the St. Tikhon Institute Akty Svyateyshego Tikhona, Patriarkha Moskovskogo i vseya Rossii: Sb. v dvukh chastyakh, Sost. M. Ye. Gubonin, Moscow, 1994, pp. 910(996. Apparently, he had been consecrated in secret.

215. See: S. Bilokin, "Pamyati ostannyoho arkhiyepyskopa UAPTs 1921 roku," Visti z Ukrayiny, June 1991, No. 25 (1679), p. 5.